In Lycovrissi, a Greek village in Anatolia, custom has it that the Passion of Christ is re-enacted every seven years. Pope (Priest) Grigoris and the village nobles choose the people to take part: Christ is to be played by Manolios, a simple shepherd; John by Michelis, son of the local nobleman Patriarcheas; Judas by Panayiotaros; Mary Magdalene by a widow named Katerina.
Late in the afternoon, refugees persecuted by the Turks arrive from another village. They seek assistance, but Pope Grigoris turns them away, claiming that they bring a cholera epidemic with them. Led by Pope Fotis, the refugees find shelter on Sarakina, an inhospitable mountain. The only people to assist them are Manolios, Michelis, Katerina, Yiannakos and Konstandis (the last two were to play Peter and James).
Once he has been chosen to play Christ, Manolios changes day by day. He separates from his fiancée and decides to strive for the highest possible level of mental, spiritual and bodily purity, with Pope Fotis as his guide. At the feast of St. Elijah he defends the refugees and talks of the value of love and mercy, provoking reactions among his fellow villagers and incurring the wrath of Pope Grigoris.
In the meantime, Patriarcheas dies and Michelis decides to share out his property among the refugees. When the refugees come to Lycovrissi to take over the land, Pope Grigoris stirs up the locals and pronounces Michelis insane. Following his brother's violent death in the clash that ensues, Pope Grigoris tells the aga (local Turkish overlord) that Manolios is to blame for all their ills. He succeeds in getting Manolios condemned and delivered to the irate villagers. The frenzied mob gathers at the church, where Pope Grigoris excommunicates Manolios and signals to the faithful to execute him within the sacred building.
Written at Antibes in 1948.
- N. Kazantzakis, O Christos xanastavronetai, Athens: Difros 1954, 1956, 1957, 1960
- N. Kazantzakis, O Christos xanastavronetai, Athens: Eleni Kazantzakis 1964 (and subsequent editions)
- Nikos Kazantzakis, Den evíga vandríngen uppåt, translated into Swedish by Börje Knös, Stockholm: Ljus 1950
- Translated into Norwegian by Aksel Akselson, Oslo: Tanum 1951
- Nikos Kazantzakis, Griechische Passion, translated into German by Werner Krebs, Berlin/Grunewald: Herbig 1951, 1953, 1957, 1963. Berlin/Darmstadt: Dt. Buch Gemeinschaft 1953. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann 1960. Berlin: Herbig 1966. Leipzig: Insel 1966. Vienna: Buchgemeinschaft Donauland/Stuttgart: Europäischer Buch 1967. Berlin: Volk und Welt 1968. Munich/Berlin/Vienna: Herbig 1970. Munich/Berlin: Herbig 1977. Munich: Heyne 1977. Hamburg: Rowohlt 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1986, 1987, 1988. Frankfurt/Berlin: Ullstein 1990, 1992,1994
- Nikos Kazantzakis, Den evige Vandring opad, translated into Danish by Axel Pille, Copenhagen: Jespersen og Pios 1952, 1967
- Nikos Kazantzakis, Ikuinen Vaellus, translated into Finnish by Juho Tervonen, Helsinki: Werner Osakeyhtio 1952
- Nikos Kazantzakis, Christus wordt weer gekruisigd, translated into Dutch by André Noorbeek, Utrecht: De Fontein 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1958, 1988. Utrecht: De Fontein/ Merksem: Westeland 1959, 1960, 1963. Brussels / Amsterdam: Reinaert 1965. Bussum: De Kern 1979
- Nikos Kazantzakis, The Greek Passion, translated into English by Jonathan Griffin, New York: Simon and Schuster 1953, 1954, 1959, 1962. Simon and Schuster/Ballantine Books 1965, Simon and Schuster 1966, 1969, 1973. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers 2000
- Nikos Kazantzakis, Christ Recrucified, translated into English by Jonathan Griffin, Oxford: B. Cassirer 1954, 1960, 1963. London: Faber and Faber 1962, 1972
- Nikos Kazantzakis, Cristo de nuevo crucificado, translated into Spanish by José Luis de Izquierdo Hernández, Buenos Aires: Carlos Lohlé 1954, 1957, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1963. Barcelona: Pomaire 1976. Barcelona: Círculo de Lectores 1977. Madrid: Alianza/Buenos Aires: Carlos Lohlé 1984. Santiago (Chile): Andrés Bello 1988. Madrid: Alianza 1989
- Nikos Kazantzakis, Cristo di nuovo in Croce, translated into Italian by Mario Vitti, Verona: Mondadori 1955, 1965, 1974
- Nikos Kazantzakis, Le Christ recrucifié, translated into French by Pierre Amandry, Paris: Plon 1955, 1956, 1957, 1965, 1968, 1970, 1976, 1977, 1988, 1991, 1998. Lausanne: La Guilde du livre 1957. Lausanne/Paris: Rencontre 1970
- Nikos Kazantzakis, Christos Otnovo rozpnat, translated into Bulgarian by Markos Egeos-Stanilov, Sofia: Narodna Kultura 1957
- Nikos Kazantzakis, Cristo recrucificado, translated into Portuguese by Manuel B. Fonseca, with an introduction by Henrique dos Santos Carvalho, Lisbon: Ulisseia 1957, 1958, 1960, 1966, 1968, 1973, 1984
- Niko Kazantzakis, Christus word weer gekruisig, translated into Dutch by Phil Olivier, Pretoria: HAUM 1958
- Nikos Kazantzakis, Hristos ponovo razapet, translated into Croatian by Lela Matić, Subotica, Belgrade: Minerva 1958, 1972
- Nikos Kazantzakis, Kristus znovu ukřižovaný, translated into Czech by Eva Outratová, with an epilogue by Marianna Stříbrná, Prague: SNKLΗU 1958. Prague: SNKLU 1966 [with an epilogue by Růžena Dostálová-Jeništová]
- Nikos Kazantzakis, Chrystus ukrzyzowanypo raz wtóry, translated into Polish by Jadwiga Dackiewicz, Warsaw: Pax 1958, 1978. Posnan: Kantor Wydawniczy 1992
- Nikos Kazantzakis, El Crist de nou crucificat, translated into Catalan by Joan Sales, Barcelona: Club Editor, 1959, 1965, 1972, 1976, 1994
- Nikos Kazantzakis, Akinek meg kell halnia, translated into Hungarian with an introduction by Peter Rubin, Budapest: Európa 1961, 1964, 1973
- Nikos Kazandzakis, Krista raspinaiut vnov', translated into Russian by Iannisa Mochosa and Igoria Postupal'skoga, Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel'stro Khudozhestvennoi Literatury 1962
- Nikos Kazantzakis, Kristos znova ukrižovaný, translated into Slovak with an afterword by Michal Bartko, Bratislava: Vydavatel'stvo Slovensky Spisovatel Slovensky 1965, 1983
- Nikos Kazantzakis, Hristos rastignit a doua oara, translated into Romanian by Pericle Martinescu - Ioan Halianis, with a foreword by Romul Munteanu, Bucharest: Pentru Literatura 1968
- Nikos Kazancakis, Yeniden çarmιha geriliş, translated into Turkish by Sumru Ateşoğlu, Istanbul: Habora Kitabevi 1971
- Nikos Kazansakis, Hristos povtorno raspnat, translated into Slav Macedonian by Paskal Gilevski, Skopje: Makedonska kniga 1975.
- Nikos Kazancakis, Yeniden çarmιha geriliş, translated into Turkish by Gülen Findikli, Istanbul: Habora 1979
- Nikos Kazancakis, Yeniden çarmιha gerilen İsa, translated into Turkish by Tuğrul Tanyol, Istanbul: Can 1982, 1999
- Nikos Kazantzakis, Mesihe baz meslop, translated into Farsi, Tehran: anon. 1983
- Nikos Kazantzakis, O Cristo recrucificado, translated into Portuguese by Guilhermina Sette, Sao Paolo: Abril Cultural 1985. Sao Paolo: Circulo do Livro 
- Niko Kazantzakis, Christus wordt weer gekruisigd, translated into Dutch by Willem Monné, Naarden: Strengholt 1988
- Nikos Kazantzakis, Akhrin vas'vasah-i masih, translated into Farsi, Tehran: Intisharat-i Nilofar 1989
- Nikos Kazantzakis, Cristo nuevamente crucificado, translated into Spanish by José Luis de Izquierdo Hernández) - Toda-Raba (translated into Spanish by Hernán del Solar), Barcelona: Planeta 1990, 1991, 1992
- Yesu chong shang shi zi jia, translated into Chinese by Zhenji yi Wang, Beijing: Wai guo wen xue chu ban she 1991
- Nikos Kazancakis, Yeniden çarmιha geriliş, translated into Turkish by Gülen Aktaş, Istanbul: Oda 1992
- Nikus Kazantzakis, al-Ighwa' al-akhir lil-masih, translated into Arabic by Usamah Manzalji, Damascus: Dar al-Mada 1995, 2002
Theatre performances & adaptations
- Performance in Olso, Norske Theatret State Troupe, adapted by Rangvald Skrede, music by Sparre Olsen, 1954
- Performance in Helsinki, adapted by Rangvald Skrede, music by Ingve Ingman, 1954
- Manos Katrakis Greek Popular Theatre, adapted by Notis Peryialis - Gerasimos Stavrou, directed by Takis Mouzenidis, music by Fivos Anogeianakis, set design by Spyros Vassiliou, 1956. The troupe celebrated its 100th performance in the presence of Eleni Kazantzakis and I. T. Kakridis.
- The Greek Passion, adapted by Michael Antonakes - entitled He Who Must Die, experimental performance at the Herbert Berghof Studio, New York, 1957
- He Who Must Die, adapted by Michael Antonakes, set design by Nikos Psacharopoulos, Yale University troupe performance, 1960. Eleni Kazantzakis attended the 1972 Yale performance.
- Performance at the Théâtre Montansier, Versailles by Marcelle Tassencourt, adapted by François Daviel, 1961
- Performance in Paris, at the Jean-Louis Barrault Theatre, by Marcelle Tassencourt, adapted by François Daviel, 1962
- Performance in Antwerp, Flemish adaptation by Jef van der Heyden, 1964
- He Who Must Die, adapted by Michael Antonakes, music by Paul Demakis, performance at Salem State College Theatre, Massachusetts, 1972
- He Who Must Die, adapted by Michael Antonakes, performance by the Greek Theater of New York at the La Mama Theater, New York, 1980
- Nikos Kazantzakis, Le Christ recrucifié. In two parts, adapted for the theatre by François Daviel, Paris: [Abexpress] 1962
- The Way of the Potter, unpublished adaptation by Michael Antonakes, Nikos Kazantzakis Museum (Varvari, Heraklion)
Cinema & Television
- Celui qui doit mourir [=He Who Must Die], directed by Jules Dassin, script by Ben Barzman, Jules Dassin, André Obey, music by Georges Auric, produced by Henri Bérard. Production: Cinétel - Da Ma Produzione - Filmsonor S.A. - Indus Films - Prima, 1957. Cast: Pierre Vaneck, Melina Mercouri, Maurice Ronet, Jean Servais, Fernand Ledoux.
The film was screened at the 1957 Cannes Film Festival, at which it won a special award. Nikos and Eleni Kazantzakis attended the premiere.
- Christ Recrucified, a mini-series in 6 episodes, directed by Hugh David, script and adaptation by Jack Pulman, produced by David Conroy. A BBC production, 1969. Cast: Aharon Ipalé, John Franklyn-Robbins, John Phillips.
- O Christos xanastavronetai, a series in 70 episodes, directed by Vassilis Yeorgiadis, script by Notis Peryialis and Gerasimos Stavrou. An Astir production for Greek Radio and Television (ERT), 1975. Cast: Alexis Golfis, Lycourgos Kallergis, Yiannis Argyris, Katia Dandoulaki, Dimos Starenios, Andreas Philippidis, Νiki Triantafyllidi, Yiorgos Foundas.
- Ena Elliniko Pathos / GriechischePassion / The Greek passion, opera. Libretto and score by Bohuslav Martinu 1961. Premiered at Zurich Opera in 1961. Subsequent performances: Brn Opera 1962; Leeds Opera 1962; Peruggia Opera 1962; Essen Opera 1963; Prague Opera 1964, 1967, 1969, 1975; Antwerp Opera 1964, 1969; Bratislava Opera 1969, 1972, 1973; Parma Opera 1969; Ostrava Opera 1969; Paris, radio broadcast, 1972; Lubeck Opera 1973; Bielefeld Opera 1973; Rouen Opera 1973; Athens Festival, by the Prague Opera 1975; Paris, Opéra Comique 1980; Leipzig Opera 1980; Stadion Hall, Brn, 1981; Blumington Opera, Indiana, USA 1981; Cardiff Opera 1981; Dusseldorf Opera 1981; Luxemburg Opera 1983; Paris, marking the 100th anniversary of Martinu's birth 1990; Festspielhaus, Bregenz, 1999.
- Ecce Homo, Opera, score by Szokolay Sándor, Budapest Opera 1987.
- Bohuslav Martinú, Griechische Passion, London: Universal Edition 1978 [the score]
- Louis Durey, Nicolios et la flûte: op. 111, Paris: Gérard Billaudot Editeur 1974 - a work for flute and harp, inspired by an incident in Kazantzakis' novel Christ Recrucified [the score]
- Bohuslav Martinú, Griechische Passion, an opera in 4 acts, Vienna: Universal edition 1961
- Bohuslav Martinú, Griechische Passion, an opera in 4 acts, Prague: Supraphon / New York: Qualiton Imports 1981 (live recording at Stadion Hall, Brn, June 1981)
- Bohuslav Martinú, Griechische Passion, an opera in 4 acts, Koch Schwann, 2000 (live recording at the Festspielhaus, Bregenz, June 1999)
- Bohuslav Martinú, The Greek Passion, a musical drama in 4 acts, London: Universal edition 2001
- Bohuslav Martinú, The Greek Passion, music drama in 4 acts. First version (1957), reconstructed and edited by Ales Brezina, Vienna: Universal edition 2001